"etc", "and so on", "and so forth" meanings
Etc. stands for ‘et cetera‘ (or ‘etcetera’) which means ‘and other things’.
It’s a Latin expression that’s been adopted by the English and is pronounced /ɛtˈsɛtərə/.
When you see etc. at the end of a list, it means that you should continue the series logically in the manner indicated:
- I think you should get her something nice for her birthday. Some flowers, concert tickets, a necklace, etc.
In the above example, the logical way to continue the series could be: a bracelet, a spa treatment, some Belgian truffles and other treats.
Both AND SO ON and AND SO FORTH mean CONTINUING IN THE SAME WAY, so they may be used similarly to etc.
- I’m so mad at my husband. He doesn’t do anything around the house at all. I have to do the cleaning, the shopping, the cooking and so on.
- I’ll need some help organising the party, sending out invitations, booking David Guetta and so forth.
In formal writing, you may use etc. and and so forth, while and so on is a bit more informal.
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